An instance variable is a data element whose value can be altered and which has (potentially) a different value for each instance. The values of the instance variables represent the state of the object. Instance variables can be public but seldom are.
Declaration: private type varId;
A class constant is a data element whose value cannot be altered. Use a private class constant if a fixed value is needed in two or more class members but the value does not need to be publicly accessible.
Declaration: private static final type constantId = constantValue;
Use a public class constant if a fixed value needs to be publicly accessible. You should write a documentation comment for each public class constant.
Declaration: public static final type constantId = constantValue;
A class variable is a data element whose value can be altered and which has the same value for every instance. Class variables are seldom needed. Class variables can be public but seldom are.
Declaration: private static type varId;
Local constants represent fixed values that are needed within a single method. Use a local constant if the value is needed two or more times or if naming the value would make your code more readable.
Declaration: final type constantId = constantValue;
Local variables represent a value that is subject to change and is needed within a single method.
Declaration: type varId;
Declaration: type varId = initialValue;
Variable identifiers should be lowercase with each word after the first capitalized. Here are some examples:
width, hourlyWage, totalCostPerBox
Constant identifiers should be uppercase with words separated by an underscore character. Here are some examples:
PI, UNIT_COST, KILOGRAMS_PER_POUND
Identifiers can also contain digits (0..9) but don't use digits unless you have a compelling reason to do so.